Yoga and Liberation: Yoga Sutras of Patanjali 4:34

“Freedom is a reversal of the evolutionary course of material things, which are empty of meaning for the spirit; it is also the power of consciousness in a state of true identity.”

Yoga Sutras of Patanjali 4:34

I just finished reading Barbara Stoler Miller’s translation of the Yoga Sutras, Yoga: Discipline of Freedom. She translates the Sanskrit word yoga as “discipline,” the discipline for achieving spiritual freedom. Miller defines freedom (kaivalya in Sanskrit) as “the isolation and liberation of the human spirit from material nature.”

The last sutra 4:34 concludes: “Freedom is a reversal of the evolutionary course of material things, which are empty of meaning for the spirit; it is also the power of consciousness in a state of true identity.” Miller’s commentary explains that Pantanjali means that when the spirit achieves its true identity, it is liberated to be an omniscient observer to the world rather than a suffering participant subject to temporal constraints and ceaseless change.

But what does that really mean? And do I want that?

Then I listened to this lovely Real Talk Radio Podcast episode Hiking, Grief, & Liberation with Amanda Jameson, where Jameson describes an experience that, to me, fleshed out the type of spiritual liberation the Yoga Sutras are dedicated to achieving. At least, this is what I hope they are talking about, as it’s something I can get behind.

In relevant part (from 0:29:40), Jameson:

I just remember standing at the top of that valley and feeling more peace than I think that I had felt in just a really long time. And have you ever felt the rightness of a moment? …. To me, it doesn’t feel faded, it doesn’t feel like I was meant to be here, but it feels so much like you’ve lifted the veil a little bit almost, and you’re seeing what could be and just both within yourself and in the wider world. And it’s just this feeling of smallness combined with this feeling of love for the land and for yourself, and just this feeling of compassion, I guess is the word, for this life journey that we’re all on. And the most heartbreaking, but I also think that one of the most beautiful things about moments like that is that we do have to move on eventually… just knowing that that moment will end is part of that moment’s beauty. And I don’t know that anything has taught me that particular lesson as much as through hiking.

Her evocative description of her feeling of peace in that moment calls to mind the omniscient perspective and non-attachment of the yogic ideal of freedom. The ladies go on to have a beautiful conversation about how to bring that feeling of peace from thru-hiking (“when you hike hard enough for long enough that the bullshit in your brain stops”) back to more aspects of front-country life and what liberation means or feels like in the context of finding a way to live that is less harmful, to ourselves, to others and the planet.

While most of us will never achieve something as radical as letting go of all desires, attachments and completely erasing our own egos, there is wisdom in the idea of liberation through changing one’s perception. Even if in historic context the liberation sought by yogis was liberation from the karmic cycle and yoga is not mentioned in the podcast, this conversation was enlightening to me about how spiritual liberation can be relevant to my life and align with values of activism and social change. Give it a listen!

Yoga Philosophy: Yoga Sutras of Patanjali 1.33 The “Four Locks and Four Keys” Sutra and Social Change

“To attain calmness of the mind, cultivate attitudes of friendliness toward the happy, compassion for the unhappy, delight in the virtuous and disregard toward the wicked.”

Yoga Sutras of Patanjali 1.33

The Yoga Sutras of Patanjali is one of the foundational texts of yoga philosophy. It is a collection of 195 verses or sutras (literally “threads”) that are the first known systematic and organized documentation of the much older philosophical tradition of yoga. It is one of the required readings for my yoga teacher training and I am currently working my way through two translations of the sutras. (More info about the books at the end of this post.)

I have struggled a lot with Eastern philosophy in the past, especially Buddhism’s focus on suffering, having only a high school world history secondary source based understanding of these schools of thought. The aim of Yoga is to control one’s own mind and liberate one’s own consciousness. How do we reconcile that with a desire to help others and effect change to better the world? Barbara Stoler Miller explains that Yoga Sutra 1.33 is about changing our “perceived relationships with other creatures on earth.”

Yoga Sutra 1.33 states: “To attain calmness of the mind, cultivate attitudes of friendliness toward the happy, compassion for the unhappy, delight in the virtuous and disregard toward the wicked.” (Note: This is my personal “clean-up” of the Sri Swami Satchidananda translation to make it a bit more natural in English.) It is known as the “Four Locks and Four Keys” sutra and is a lot of people’s favorite sutra.

Sutra 1.33 seems especially resonant in the COVID times. The pandemic has made class and income inequality starkly apparent. #stayhome is insensitive and out-of-touch for people who cannot simply work from home. We have record unemployment; at the same time, the stock market is booming. But what if instead of feeling jealous or assuming bad things about the people who still seem to be doing well, we befriended them and learned what they are doing to stay happy? And what if instead of feeling smug and criticizing the life choices of those less fortunate, we treated them with compassion and empathy? Wouldn’t our communities feel closer and less divided during these trying times?

Personally, the second half of Sutra 1.33 has been useful in restoring my mental health after the ravages of 2020 as we entered 2021. I expended so much emotional energy over the summer of 2020 trying to police mask-wearing in the retail store I worked in, to the point that I had a nervous breakdown and quit my job. I realize now that it is useless to confront an anti-masker, but at the time I tried being friendly, being harsh, putting up legal ordinances and scientific information and funny memes all over the doors and on the plexiglass at the register… to no avail.

Instead, Yoga Sutra 1.33 advises us to “disregard the wicked.” Sri Sachidananda’s commentary warns us not to try to advise or engage with wicked people because they seldom take advice and you will lose your own peace for naught. I experienced this firsthand.

Does cultivating “disregard for the wicked” mean that we turn a blind eye and do not stand up to the injustices we see in the world? I don’t think so. I think the wisdom of this sutra is that it prompts us to focus on the changes we can make to ourselves, and avoid focusing on others’ behavior.

How does this apply to thinking about how to be a good neighbor during the COVID-19 pandemic, how to be actively anti-racist, how to be an engaged citizen in our delicate democracy, how to address the climate crisis? In the context of thinking about how to effect change in the world, I think this means that we should focus on the actions we can take ourselves, and avoid focusing on changing the minds of people who disagree.

For example, in trying to get local government to seriously address the COVID-19 pandemic, it is no use for me to get in a shouting match with someone who refuses to wear a mask, but I can write to my city council in support of keeping a mask ordinance in place and I can call my state senators and representatives to ask them to oppose efforts to lift the Idaho Governor’s emergency declaration (which would hinder the state’s ability to receive COVID related aid from the federal government).

So next time you catch yourself picking a fight with someone on Facebook or Googling “Why is Mitch McConnell so evil?”, take a step back and redirect that energy from anger/despair over “how could someone think that way?” to thinking about what action you could do to address the underlying problem (e.g. vote, attend your city council meetings, get to know your local law enforcement, support local newspapers and reporters, write to your representatives and congressmen, volunteer). In that way maybe you can maintain a bit more mental calm and emotional energy to continue to fight the good fight.

I’m going to try to implement this as a mindfulness practice when I get riled up by political issues. If you try it too, please let me know how it goes. I would love to hear about your small (or large) wins in the comments below.

Note: I am a yoga philosophy beginner, not an expert by any stretch of the imagination! My understanding of the sutras is based on reading the following two translations :

  • The Yoga Sutras of Patanjali (Amazon affiliate link)– Sri Swami Satchidananda’s version was recommended by my yoga teacher training, and his commentary is a very influential reading of the sutras in the contemporary yoga community in the West. However, I find a lot of the commentary insufferably elitist and there is a lot of analogizing to Christianity (which I understand is reassuring to a lot of yoga beginners in the West) without any context about how the sutras were historically interpreted in the Indian philosophical tradition.
  • Yoga: Discipline of Freedom: The Yoga Sutra Attributed to Patanjali (Amazon affiliate link) – I found Barbara Stoler Miller’s version when I was looking for more academic and historical context for the sutras, rather than the musings of any one particular yogi or guru. I would recommend this version for anyone looking for a first time introduction to the sutras because it focuses solely on the sutras themselves, organizing them in a way that is concise and readable and contextualized in Indian philosophical tradition.